The population of the Republic of San Marino boasts a high schooling and training rate and is able to offer professional skills required by the various businesses operating in the country. Great attention is paid to professional qualification, lifelong training and the upgrading of workers’ skills.
The highly qualified professionals, in terms both of blue and white collars, are the result of a synergistic training system characterised by important and innovative facilities in support of businesses and workers.
Investment in human capital is favoured by forms of contracts that include training and re-training and by instruments providing for incentives available to economic operators. This contributes to the enhancement of knowledge and human skills, by favouring higher production efficiency and businesses profits, as well as a development model based on growth.
If the skills required by businesses operating in the territory are not available, it is possible to look for workers not resident in San Marino.
The services matching labour demand and supply are offered by a public office and are available on-line.
National collective agreements define the basic elements and contents of the individual labour contract. This model improves productivity and leads to the reduction of social conflicts.
The instruments available to reduce labour cost offer flexibility to businesses and help to improve their competitiveness.
Labour cost is competitive thanks to a lower incidence of social security contributions compared to neighbouring countries. Social security contributions paid by businesses vary depending on the legal form and sector of the business.
The various forms of contracts allow businesses to employ workers in a flexible way according to their needs and are particularly favourable to the employer, also considering the economic incentives envisaged by the legislation in this field.
Indeed, there are several incentives to support employment, training and acquisition of skills aimed at the employment or re-employment in the business of certain categories of workers. EMPLOYMENT INCENTIVES
Social contribution costs:
- paid by the employer: 30.9% of the gross salary of each employee (for illness, pregnancy, family allowances, social safety nets);
- paid by the employee: 8.3% of gross salary.
Security and waste management costs
a) Safety costs
The San Marino legislation on safety at work (Law no. 31 of 18 February 1998 and subsequent implementing decrees), harmonised with the "Consolidated Law on health and safety at work" (Legislative Decree of 9 April 2008), establishes the fundamental principles regarding the protection of the worker and the environment surrounding the workplace.
Law 31/98 has collected a large number of rules in a single context and introduced the concept of risk assessment in the workplace.
The current legislation provides, among other things:
- the drafting and updating of the "Risk Assessment Document";
- the appointment and training of the "Prevention and Protection Service" and of the person responsible for the Service;
- the appointment and training of the Firefighting and First Aid Emergency Team;
- the appointment of any other necessary figures (Work Doctor, Workers' Safety Representative, etc.);
- the organisation of the "Emergency and evacuation plan";
- the need for training and information, for all workers, on risks and on the emergency plan, upon recruitment and periodically;
- the drafting of the "Intervention file for activities with a higher fire risk" (Delegated Decree no. 146 of 6 August 2010).
b) Waste management costs
In order to recover or dispose its urban and special, hazardous and non-hazardous waste, San Marino has the obligation to refer to Italy, in particular to the neighbouring or nearby regions, i.e. Emilia-Romagna, Marche and Lombardy.
The costs for cross-border bureaucratic procedures refer to three laws:
- the San Marino environmental code no. 44 of 2012;
- EC Regulation 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council (June 2006);
- Italian Ministerial Decree no. 370 of 1998 (financial guarantee for cross-border waste transport).
A comparative analysis of the costs that local and cross-border companies have to bear in order to "eliminate" waste shows that the costs of disposal of special waste for San Marino companies can sometimes be higher than those borne by Italian companies, for example because of the guarantees required by Italian legislation. The company responsible for the cross-border notification procedure must in fact ask banks or insurance agencies for a guarantee to cover any damage to the environment pursuant to Ministerial Decree 370/1998.
c) Costs related to the management of toxic/pollutant/hazardous substances
San Marino law states that producers of hazardous special waste are required to provide at their own expense and under their responsibility for an adequate and separate disposal of such waste, in accordance with the rules in force. In particular, it is forbidden to put such waste in containers or accumulation points intended to receive urban or special waste considered as urban waste.